Situated mid-way between the more heavily populated areas of Monterey and Santa Cruz is the small port of Moss Landing. Here one finds restaurants and shops for the tourist, commercial fishing boats, and an increasing number of governmental entities studying Monterey Bay and its various inhabitants. Beaches along this stretch of Monterey Bay are generally wide and sandy and for the surf angler they produce good catches of the surf species—mainly barred, walleye and calico surfperch, but also an occasional striped bass. The jetty that leads into the bay is an equally good producer of fish for the rock fishermen navigating the large (and sometimes slippery) rocks. Of course the fish mix changes to the rock dwelling species—striped seaperch, rockfish, cabezon, lingcod and an occasional monkeyface eel. The bay itself produces a wide variety of fish and it connects to Elkhorn Slough, an area once noted for an annual shark derby (and won most years by bat rays exceeding 100 pounds).
The Sandholt Pier — 1978
Pier fisherman, unfortunately, are no longer part of the mix. Although there once was an oceanfront pier that was open to the public and fishermen (the Sandholdt Pier), today they find a beach and what appears to be two pilings extending up from the water.
What appears to be a couple of pilings from a former pier
It’s a little unclear why there is no pier. When the Moss Landing Labs built their new laboratories they applied to the Coastal Commission for a new pier, but one restricted to scientific vessels and their personnel. As a nod to the public, and a begrudging acceptance of direction from the Coastal Conservancy, the Moss Landing Marine Laboratory did agree to a thousand square foot viewing area. Pier fishing though would be verboten, totally forbidden. The fear was that anglers inevitably would be a threat to the school’s various craft. The argument was debatable but not surprising given the state of affairs in “modern day” California.
It’s a shame because the pier that once graced the spot offered up some truly unusual fishing at times and had one of the highest fish-per-angler-day figures of the central coast piers.er part of the mix.
What happened to the new pier? I have to find out. No pier graces the shoreline today and the ships of the Moss Landing Labs are berthed across the street in the harbor. Was a pier not built? Was a pier built that was destroyed? We’ll find out.
Environment. Although at first glance this area simply appears to be another sandy-shore beach area, looks are deceiving. Hidden offshore is the Monterey Submarine Canyon, one of the largest underwater canyons in the world, and certainly one of the most studied. Comparable in depth and length to the Grand Canyon of Arizona, it’s the West Coast’s largest such canyon. And, after more than a 90-mile length, and from a 12,000-foot depth, the canyon rises and funnels into Moss Landing.
Within a hundred yards of the shoreline is where the Canyon begins, or ends, depending upon your view, and provides a unique deep-water habitat fairly close to shore. The proximity to the canyon led to the special nature of this pier—the occasional catch of a deep-water species that had followed the canyon’s highway up toward the beach. Strange species were not a daily, or even common occurrence, but the possibility of such species made the pier special.
More commonly caught were the typical surf species: surfperch, white croaker, jacksmelt, flounder and sole. But it was always the possibility of those more exotic species that was the main attraction of the pier to me (and other similar-inclined amateur ichthyologists).
One unusual fish I did see caught here, although actually not a deep-water fish nor a typical sandy-shore species, was a wolf eel (Anarrhichthys ocellatus). What was most interesting about this fish was the power of its jaws. An angler had caught the wolf eel while fishing on the bottom with a piece of anchovy, and the fish had swallowed the hook. Most anglers would simply have tied on a new leader when they saw the teeth in the nearly four-foot-long eel. But no, this angler wanted to save his hooks. His solution was to insert a small broom handle (about the thickness of a half-inch dowel) into the mouth to prop it open. It didn’t work! The wolf eel bit through the handle, and the angler decided to retrieve his hooks after the fish was dead. A smart move I might add.
<*}}}}}}}}}>< — Although figures can change greatly from year to year, and season to season depending upon water temperature and other factors the various studies give a glimpse to both numbers of fish and species.
One such report was CA Fish and Game Dept., Administrative Report No. 82-9, Species Composition and Catch per Unit of Effort of Monterey Bay Surf, Pier, and Skiff Anglers in 1979: “In 1979, Monterey Bay sport anglers were sampled for species composition of the catch and catch per unit of effort. A total of 4,150 surf, pier, and skiff anglers were interviewed. Fish per hour was… .58 for piers. The species composition of the pier catch was dominated by juvenile bocaccio, Sebastes paucispinis; white croaker, Genyonemus lineatus; and the walleye surfperch, Hyperprosopon argentum … a small privately operated pier inside Moss Landing Harbor had the best catch rate (2.44 fph) of all piers sampled.”
The Moss Landing Pier (oceanfront) showed a .99 fish per hour rating and the following top seven species: (1) Bocaccio 44%; (2) Walleye surfperch 16%; (3) Silver surfperch 10%; (4) Sanddabs spp. 9%; (5) Barred surfperch; (6) White croaker 4%; (7) Jacksmelt 1%.
The Moss Landing Partyboat Pier (in the harbor) had, as mentioned, the highest fish per hour rating of the six Monterey Bay piers surveyed at 2.44 fph. The pier showed the following top seven species: (1) Walleye surfperch; (2) Jacksmelt; (3) Bocaccio; (4) Brown rockfish; (5) Shiner surfperch; (6) White surfperch; (7) Staghorn sculpin. Mention is made in reference to the catch rate: “The best fishing pier was the Moss Landing partyboat pier where the catch rate was 2.44 fish per hour. This pier is a private pier where a fee is charged to fish and is only open during the summer and fall when fishing is at its best; this accounts for the higher catch rates.”
However, catch rates can vary considerably year to year. The 1979 survey showed Monterey Wharf #2 as the best public pier at 1.55 fph and the Santa Cruz Wharf as having the lowest catch rate at .32 fph. A similar study a decade earlier, in 1968, showed quite different results. Santa Cruz had the highest rate at 1.25 fph and Monterey Wharf #2 as one of the poorest at .50 fph.
The conflicting data simply shows the need for various studies over different times and years to get a true picture as to what a pier should offer.
Fish Bulletin 130, Department of Fish Game, Ocean Sportfish Catch and Effort From Oregon to Point Arguello, California July 1, 1957–June 30, 1961by Daniel J. Miller and Daniel Gotshall surveyed fishing areas throughout central and northern California. In regard to the Moss Landing Pier it reported the following species catch during 1958: 30 blue rockfish, 746 flatfish, 10,155 surfperch, 279 staghorn sculpin, 7,695 white croaker, and 17,092 jacksmelt. With the exception of the blue rockfish, all other species are typical sandy-shore species.
<*}}}}}}}}}>< — As said, the deep canyon waters funneling into the mouth of the bay would occasionally yield up some unusual deep-water species. Such was the case with the following:
“On July 5, 1968, while fishing off Sandholt Pier in Moss Landing, California, a fisherman, Ramon Castillo, hooked a 1020 mm (40.2 inch) Standard Length (sl) North Pacific frostfish, Benthodesmus elongatus pacificus (Parin and Becker, 1970), a species unknown in California. This interesting deep-water fish was brought to the Moss Landing Marine Laboratories and placed unidentified in the ichthyology research collection… During the summer of 1973, while reorganizing this collection, we rediscovered this specimen along with another slightly smaller individual that had no collection data, and identified both of them as Benthodesmus simony i, using keys to the family Trichiuridae (Tucker 1956) and to the genus Benthodesmus (Tucker 1953). Parin and Becker (1970) assigned the new subspecific designation, Benthodesmus elongatus pacificus, to five specimens from the western North Pacific collected by the Soviet trawler K/V Vityaz from 1958 to 1966, one specimen off Japan (Franz 1910), and one specimen off British Columbia (Gilbert 1917). Thus, these two specimens from Moss Landing not only add a new species to the California marine fish fauna but represent the second and third recorded collections in the eastern North Pacific Ocean.”
—M. Eric Anderson and Gregor M. Cailliet, California Fish and Game, July 1975
<*}}}}}}}}}>< — Usually winter storms provide most of the damage to coastal piers but California also has something called earthquakes. “The wharf at Moss Landing buckled up and partly collapsed, while the warehouses were wrecked or fell westward… At Moss Landing many small cracks occur in the mud on the west side of the river, and the condition of the wharf indicates an eastward movement of the sand-spit… It is reported that at places along the pier where the water was formerly 6 feet deep, it now has a depth of 18 or 20 feet.”
—The California Earthquake of April 18, 1906, Report of the State Earthquake Investigation Commission
History Note. Moss Landing is located on the Bay of Monterey at the mouth of the Salinas river, about three miles from Castroville, and has three extensive and commodious warehouses for the storage of grain, and a substantial wharf running out into the bay about 1000 feet, where vessels lie to take in grain. A regular line of steamers call twice a week.
Moss Landing, on the eastern shore of the bay, at the head of the great submarine valley, lies 12 miles 36° true (N by E % E mag.) from Point Pinos and 14 1/2 miles 128° true (ESE 4 E mag.) from Santa Cruz lighthouse. It has a small amount of domestic trade— lumber and general merchandise being received and grain, fruit, and farm products shipped. A wharf has been built out to deep water, the depth at the end varying from 30 to 50 feet, according to the season of the year, being less in winter. The anchorage is unprotected, but the holding ground is good; vessels anchor southward of the wharf to avoid the deep water off the end. The prevailing winds are northwesterly, with a few southeasterly gales during the winter; the latter are dangerous to vessels at anchor. No supplies can be obtained except by previous arrangement. Communication is had by regular coasting steamers and by rail.
—United States Coast Pilot, Pacific Coast, Third Edition, 1917
Most of the earth’s continents are girded by shallow shelves that slope gently away from the land for many miles, their depths seldom greater than a few hundred feet. On the East Coast of the United States, the shelf stretches for more than one hundred miles in many spots, before giving way to a steep slope that drops into the abyss. On the West Coast, the shelf is narrower but still a substantial barrier to the deep. Off Monterey, things are different. Here an enormous canyon cuts the continental shelf in two, bringing deep water remarkably close to land The canyon is so close that erosional forces at its tip keep nibbling away the old pier at Moss Landing, located at the bay’s midpoint. The dilapidated pier used to be twice as long, but with troubling regularity its leading edge keeps tumbling into the head of the invisible canyon.
—William J. Broad, Dimitry Schidlovsky, The universe below: discovering the secrets of the deep sea, 1998
Salmon and steelhead were also abundant in Elkhorn Slough. They were caught with gill nets here in the early part of this century by local fisherman, along with the introduced striped bass, which were sometimes as large as 50 pounds (per. comm. Bill Leeman). In the early1900’s Bill Leeman’s father rented boats to hunters at Moss Landing. He tied the boats near the only major culvert that blocked Moro Cojo Slough at Moss Landing Road. Steelhead were so abundant and persistent in their leaping efforts to swim past the culvert that it was young Bill’s job to remove trapped fish from the rental boats. Leeman also recalls catching salmon with other boys from the Moss Landing pier with bent nails attached to string (1900-1910). Although these observations were made during the Reclamation Period, the anadromous and freshwater fishes must have been extremely abundant throughout the Monterey Bay, and its rivers and wetlands for hundreds and probably thousands of years.